Antónia Monteiro

Science (Biology)

Associate Professor

Contact No.: +65 6601-3418

View Curriculum Vitae

Associate Professor Antónia Monteiro graduated with a BS for Zoology and Environment Sciences at the University of Lisbon in 1992. Thereafter, she obtained her PhD at the University of Edinburgh in UK. Her dissertation was on “The Evolutionary Genetics and Development Basis of Eyespot Morphology in Butterfly Wings.” She then moved to Harvard University where she trained in the field of Molecular Phylogenetics, and then did further training in the field of Evolutionary Developmental Biology at Leiden University, The Netherlands.

In 2006, Assoc Prof Monteiro joined Yale University’s Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology as Assistant Professor. During the same period, Assoc Prof Monteiro was Assistant Curator of Entomology at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale. Prior to joining Yale, Assoc Prof Monteiro was teaching at the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Buffalo.

In addition to her appointment at Yale-NUS, Assoc Prof Monteiro holds a concurrent position as Associate Professor at the Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore.

Assoc Prof Monteiro seeks to understand the evolution of morphological novelties by focusing on the evolution and development of butterfly wing patterns. Research in her lab addresses both the ultimate selective factors that favour particular wing patterns, as well as the proximate mechanisms that generate those patterns. Assoc Prof Monteiro and her team combine tools from ethology, population genetics, phylogenetics, and developmental biology to understand the nature of the variation underlying developmental mechanisms within or between species, and why species display their particular colour patterns. Her model organisms (so far) are African satyrid butterflies in the genus Bicyclus, other nymphalids, pierid butterflies, and saturniid moths.


(62) Wasik, BR, D Lilien, S Fatt Liew, AJ Dinwiddie, H Noh, M Graham, H. Cao, A Monteiro (2014) “Artificial selection for structural color on butterfly wings and comparison to natural evolution”. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.

(61) Oliver, JC, Beauliau J, LF Gall, WH PIel, and A Monteiro (2014) “Nymphalid eyespot serial homologs originate as a few individualized modules”. Proc Roy Soc Lond B

(60) Westerman, E, CB Drucker, and A Monteiro (2014) “Male and female mating behavior is dependent on social context in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. J. Insect Behavior

(59) Westerman, E, N Chirathivat, E Schyling, and A Monteiro (2014) “Mate preference for a phenotypically plastic trait is learned, and may facilitate preference-phenotype matching”. Evolution

(58) Chen, B and A Monteiro (2014) “A method for inducible over-expression and down-regulation in emerging model species using pogostick”. Methods in Molecular Biology 1101: 249-66.

(57) Tokita, CK, JC Oliver and A Monteiro (2013) “A survey of eyespot sexual dimorphism across nymphalid butterflies”. Int. J. Evol. Biol. Vol 2013: article 926702.

(56) Westerman, E and A Monteiro (2013) “Odor influences whether females learn to prefer or to avoid novel wing patterns in male butterflies”. Animal Behaviour.

(55) Bear, A and A Monteiro (2013) “Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects”. BioEssays 35(8): 725-732. (Cover article)

(54) Oliver, JC, D Ramos, KL Prudic and A Monteiro (2013) “Temporal gene expression variation associated with eyespot size plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. PLoS One 8(6): e65830.

(53) Bear, A and A Monteiro (2013) “Male courtship plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana is controlled by temperature experienced during the pupal and adult stages”. PLoS One 8(5): e64061.

(52) Monteiro A, B Chen, D Ramos, J Oliver, X Tong, WK Wang, L Fazzino, and F Kamal (2013) “Distal-less regulates wing patterns and melanization in Bicyclus butterflies”. J Exp Biol Part B 320(5): 321-331.

(51) Stoher A, J Walker, and A Monteiro (2013) “Spalt expression and the development of melanic color patterns in pierid butterflies”. EvoDevo 4:6

(50) Losos, JB, SJ Arnold, G Bejerano, ED Brodie III, D Hibbett, HE Hoekstra, DP Mindell, A Monteiro, C Moritz, HA Orr, DA Petrov, SS Renner, RE Ricklefs, PS Soltis, and TL Turner (2013) “Evolutionary Biology for the 21st Century”. PLoS Biology 11(1): e1001466.

(49) Everett A, X Tong, AD Briscoe, and A Monteiro (2012) “Phenotypic plasticity in opsin expression in a butterfly compound eye complements sex role reversal”. BMC Evol. Biol 12:232.

(48) Monteiro A (2013) “Evolution and development: molecules”. Princeton Guide to Evolution. Jonathan Losos (editor). Pg: 444-451. Princeton University Press

(47) X Tong, A Lindemann, and A Monteiro (2012) “Differential involvement of Hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development”. PLoS One 7(12): e51087.

(46) Oliver JC , X Tong, LF Gall, WH Piel, and A Monteiro (2012). “A single origin for butterfly eyespots followed by widespread loss of associated gene expression”. PloS Genetics 8:8 e1002893. (Cover article)
(Highlighted in Faculty of 1000)

(45) Westerman CE, Hodgins-Davis A, A Dinwiddie, and A Monteiro (2012). “Biased learning affects mate choice in a butterfly”. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 109(30): 12260.
(Highlighted in Faculty of 1000)

(44) Kronforst, M, G Barsh, A Kopp, J Mallet, A Monteiro, S Mullen, M Protas, E Rosenblum, C Schneider, and H Hoekstra (2012). “Unraveling the thread of nature’s tapestry: the genetics of diversity and convergence in animal pigmentation”. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 25: 411-423. (Cover article)

(43) Monteiro A (2012) “Gene regulatory networks reused to build novel traits”. BioEssays 34: 181-186. (Cover article)

(42) Chen B, S Hrycaj, JB Schinko, O Podlaha, EA Wimmer, A Popadic, and A Monteiro (2011) “Pogostick: A versatile piggyBac vector for inducible gene over-expression and down-regulation in emerging model systems”. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18659.
(41) Terenius et al. (2011) RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design. J. Insect Physiol.

(40) Oliver JC, and A Monteiro (2011). “On the origin of sexual dimorphism in butterflies”. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 278:1981-1988

(39) Prudic KL, C Jeon, H Cao, and A Monteiro (2011) “Developmental plasticity in sexual roles drives mutual sexual ornamentation”. Science 331:73-75.
(press coverage in the Wall Street Journal; BBC Earth News; Huffington Post; Guardian, among others)

(38) Wolfe JM, JC Oliver, A Monteiro (2011) “Evolutionary reduction of the first thoracic limb in butterflies”. J. Insect. Sci. 11:66.

(37) Bear A, A Simons, E. Westerman, and A Monteiro (2010) “The genetics of a dark larval color mutant in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. PloS ONE 5(7): e11563.

(36) Monteiro A and KL Prudic (2010) “Multiple approaches to study color pattern evolution in butterflies”. Trends in Evolutionary Biology 2:e2.

(35) Monteiro A (2009) “Developmental Biology meets Ecology”. Cell 138: 421-422 (review of Gilbert and Epel’s Ecological Developmental Biology, Sinauer 2008).

(34) Oliver JC, K Robertson and A Monteiro (2009). “Accommodating natural and sexual selection in butterfly wing pattern evolution”. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 276: 2369-2375.
(Highlighted in Faculty of 1000; press coverage in Nature)

(33) Monteiro A and O Podlaha (2009) “Wings, horns, and butterfly eyespots: How do complex traits evolve?” PloS Biology 7(2): e1000037.
(the idea developed in this paper was adopted as a web-based exercise for DJ Futuyma’s “Evolution” textbook, 2nd edition, chapter on Natural Selection and Adaptation

(32) Silveira M and A Monteiro (2009) “Automatic recognition of eyespot patterns on images of butterfly wings”. Biosystems 95:130-136.

(31) Abzhanov A, C Extavour, A Groover, S Hodges, H Hoekstra, E Kramer and A Monteiro (2008) “Are we there yet? Tracking the development of new model systems”. Trends in Genetics 24:353-360.

(30) Monteiro A (2008) “Alternative models for the evolution of eyespots and serial homology on lepidopteran wings”. BioEssays 30:358-366.

(29) Ramos DM and A Monteiro “An in situ protocol for pupal wings of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”(05/28/2007) Journal of Visualized Experiments, 4,

(28) Ramos DM and A Monteiro (2007) “Transgenic approaches to study wing color pattern development in Lepidoptera”. Molecular Biosystems 3: 530-535

(27) Monteiro A, B Chen, L Scott, L Vedder, JH Prijs, A Belicha, PM Brakefield (2007) “The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly”. BMC Genetics 8:22

(26) Golden, K., V Raju, N Markwarth, B Chen, A Monteiro (2007) “In vivo electroporation of DNA into the wing epidermis of a butterfly”. J. Insect Sci. 7:53, available online:

(25) Costanzo, K and A Monteiro (2007) “The use of chemical and visual cues in female choice in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. Proc R. Soc. Lond. B. 274: 845-851.

(24) Monteiro A, G Glaser, S Stockslagger, N Glansdorp, and DM Ramos (2006) “Comparative insights into questions of Lepidopteran wing pattern homology”. BMC Developmental Biology 6:52.

(23) Ramos, DM, F Kamal, EA Wimmer, A Cartwright, A Monteiro (2006)” Temporal and spatial control of transgene expression using laser induction of the hsp70 promoter”. BMC Developmental Biology 6:55.
(press coverage in Nature, The Telegraph; Biotechniques, among others)

(22) Chen, B. T Kayukawa, A Monteiro, and Y Ishikawa (2006) “Cloning and characterization of the HSP70 gene, and its expression in response to diapauses and thermal stress in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua”. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39:749-758.

(21) Chen B, D Zhong, and A Monteiro (2006) “Comparative genomics and evolution of the HSP90 family of genes across all kingdoms of organisms”. BMC Genomics 7:156.

(20) Chen, B, WH Piel, L Gui, E Bruford, and A Monteiro (2005) “The HSP90 family of genes in the human genome: insights into their divergence and evolution”. Genomics 86: 627-637.

(19) Chen, B, T Kayukawa, A Monteiro, and Y. Ishikawa (2005) “ The expression of HSP90 gene in response to winter and summer diapauses and thermal-stress in the onion maggot, Delia antiqua”. Insect Molecular Biology 14: 697-702.
(18) Robertson, KA and A Monteiro (2005) “Female Bicyclus anynana butterflies choose males on the basis of their dorsal UV-reflective eyespot pupils”. Proc R. Soc. Lond. B. 272: 1541-1546.
(press coverage in Science, AAAS Science Society Radio, Der Spiegel, among others)

(17) Masci, J and A Monteiro (2005) “Visualizations of the early embryo of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. Zygote 13: 139-144.

(16) Chen, B, Y Ishikawa, T Kayukawa, H Jiang, A Monteiro, S Hoshizaki (2005) “DaTrypsin, a novel clip-domain serine proteinase is upregulated during winter and summer diapauses of the onion maggot, Delia antique”. Gene 347: 115-123.

(15) Marcus, JM, DM Ramos, and A Monteiro (2004) “Germ line transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. Proc R. Soc. Lond. B (Suppl) 271: S263-S265.
(press coverage in BBC News, The Telegraph, Science News, among others)

(14) Arbesman, S., Enthoven and A Monteiro (2003) “Ancient wings: animating the evolution of butterfly wing patterns”. Biosystems 71: 289-295.
(press coverage in Nature Science Update)

(13) Monteiro A, Prijs, J., Bax, M., Hakkart, T. Brakefield, PM (2003) “Mutants highlight butterfly wing pattern modularity”. Evolution & Development 5: 180-187.

(12) Brakefield, PM and A Monteiro (2003) The evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns in Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight: Butterflies as Model Study Systems. Chicago Press.

(11) McMillan O, A Monteiro and D Kapan (2002) “Development and evolution on the wing”. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:125-133.
(press coverage in The Telegraph)

(10) Janssen J, A Monteiro* and PM Brakefield (2001). “Correlations between scale structure and pigmentation in butterfly wings”. Evolution & Development 3: 415-423. (*Corresponding author)

(9) Brunetti CR, SE Selegue, A Monteiro, V French, PM Brakefield, & SB Carroll (2001) ”The generation and diversification of butterfly eyespot colour patterns”. Current Biology 11: 1578-1585.

(8) Monteiro A, V French, H Metz, G Smith and PM Brakefield (2001) “Butterfly eyespot patterns: evidence for specification by a morphogen diffusion gradient”. Acta Biotheoretica 49:77-88.

(7) Monteiro A and N Pierce (2001) “Phylogeny of Bicyclus (lLepidoptera: Nymphaidae) inferred from COI, COII and EF-1alpha gene sequences”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18: 264-281.

(6) Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997) “Butterfly eyespots: the genetics and development of the color rings”. Evolution 51: 1207-1216

(5) Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997) “The relationship between eyespot shape and wing shape in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana:: a genetic and morphometrical approach”. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 10: 787-802

(4) Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1997)” The genetics and development of an eyespot pattern in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: response to selection for eyespot shape”. Genetics 146: 287-294

(3) Brakefield PM, J Gates, D Keys, F Kesbeke, P Wijngaarden, A Monteiro, V French, and S Carroll (1996) “Development, plasticity, and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns”. Nature 384: 236-242.

(2) French V and A Monteiro (1994) “Butterfly wings: Colour patterns and now gene expression patterns”. BioEssays 16: 789-791

(1) Monteiro A, PM Brakefield and V French (1994) “The evolutionary genetics and developmental basis of wing pattern variation in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana”. Evolution 48: 1147-1157


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